Spanish Phonetic Alphabet with IPA for Speech Synthesis: Interactive Audio Guide

, 19-07-2024

Phonetic transcription using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system that represents the sounds of spoken language visually.

Key Transcription Rules

  • Vowels are generally pronounced as written.
  • Consonants are mostly similar to English, with some exceptions:
    • 'c' before 'e' and 'i' is [θ] in Spain, [s] in Latin America
    • 'g' before 'e' and 'i' is [x]
    • 'h' is silent
    • 'll' is [ʝ] or [ʎ] depending on dialect
    • 'ñ' is always [ɲ]
    • 'r' is [ɾ] (tap) except at the beginning of words or after 'n', 'l', 's'
    • 'rr' is always [r] (trill)
    • 'v' is pronounced like 'b' [b]
    • 'x' is usually [ks], but [x] in some words
    • 'y' is [ʝ] as a consonant, [i] as a vowel
  • Stress usually falls on the second-to-last syllable, or the last syllable for words ending in consonants (except 'n' or 's').

How to use

To use the Spanish phonetic alphabet for speech synthesis, you need to insert it as SSML (Speech Synthesis Markup Language) Phoneme Code. This way, the speech synthesizer will understand that the text should be pronounced according to the IPA alphabet. Here's an example of how to do this:

<phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="kˈasə">casa</phoneme>

Alphabet Phonetic Table

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
a abajo abˈaxo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="abˈaxo">abajo</phoneme>
b beso bˈeso <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="bˈeso">beso</phoneme>
c / [sˈelo] cielo θˈelo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="θˈelo">/ [sˈelo] cielo</phoneme>
ch chisme tʃˈisme <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="tʃˈisme">chisme</phoneme>
d dulce dˈulθe <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="dˈulθe">dulce</phoneme>
e escudo eskˈudo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="eskˈudo">escudo</phoneme>
f fuerte fwˈeɾte <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="fwˈeɾte">fuerte</phoneme>
g goma ɡˈoma <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ɡˈoma">goma</phoneme>
h hilo ˈilo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ˈilo">hilo</phoneme>
i isla ˈisla <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ˈisla">isla</phoneme>
j jugo xˈuɡo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="xˈuɡo">jugo</phoneme>
k kilómetro kilˈometɾo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="kilˈometɾo">kilómetro</phoneme>
l luz lˈuθ <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="lˈuθ">luz</phoneme>
ll llanto ʎˈanto <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ʎˈanto">llanto</phoneme>
m mundo mˈundo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="mˈundo">mundo</phoneme>
n nube nˈube <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="nˈube">nube</phoneme>
ñ maña mˈaɲa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="mˈaɲa">maña</phoneme>
o hoyo ˈoʝo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ˈoʝo">hoyo</phoneme>
p paya pˈaʝa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="pˈaʝa">paya</phoneme>
q queso kˈeso <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="kˈeso">queso</phoneme>
r río rˈio <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="rˈio">río</phoneme>
rr perro pˈero <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="pˈero">perro</phoneme>
s sopa sˈopa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="sˈopa">sopa</phoneme>
t tela tˈela <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="tˈela">tela</phoneme>
u uva ubˈa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ubˈa">uva</phoneme>
v vino bˈino <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="bˈino">vino</phoneme>
w whisky wˈiski <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="wˈiski">whisky</phoneme>
x exo ˈekso <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ˈekso">exo</phoneme>
y yema ʝˈema <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ʝˈema">yema</phoneme>
z zapato θapˈato <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="θapˈato">zapato</phoneme>

Phonetic Table

1. Vowels

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
a casa kˈasa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="kˈasa">casa</phoneme>
e peso pˈeso <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="pˈeso">peso</phoneme>
i niño nˈiɲo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="nˈiɲo">niño</phoneme>
o toro tˈoro <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="tˈoro">toro</phoneme>
u uno ˈuno <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ˈuno">uno</phoneme>

2. Consonants

a) Plosives:

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
p papel papˈel <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="papˈel">papel</phoneme>
b boca bˈoka <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="bˈoka">boca</phoneme>
t taza tˈaθa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="tˈaθa">taza</phoneme>
d dedo dˈeðo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="dˈeðo">dedo</phoneme>
k casa kˈasa <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="kˈasa">casa</phoneme>
g gato gˈato <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="gˈato">gato</phoneme>

b) Fricatives

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
f foca fˈoka <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="fˈoka">foca</phoneme>
θ zapato θapˈato <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="θapˈato">zapato</phoneme>
s sol sol <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="sol">sol</phoneme>
x jardín xardˈin <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="xardˈin">jardín</phoneme>
ʝ yo ʝo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ʝo">yo</phoneme>

c) Affricates

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
chico tʃˈiko <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="tʃˈiko">chico</phoneme>

d) Nasals

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
m mano mˈano <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="mˈano">mano</phoneme>
n nada nˈaða <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="nˈaða">nada</phoneme>
ɲ niño nˈiɲo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="nˈiɲo">niño</phoneme>

e) Liquids

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
l lado lˈaðo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="lˈaðo">lado</phoneme>
ʎ llave ʎˈabe <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ʎˈabe">llave</phoneme>
ɾ pero pˈeɾo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="pˈeɾo">pero</phoneme>
r perro pˈero <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="pˈero">perro</phoneme>

3. Pronunciation features:

a) Voiced consonants between vowels:

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
β sábado sˈaβaðo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="sˈaβaðo">sábado</phoneme>

b) The letter 'v'

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
v vaca bˈaka <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="bˈaka">vaca</phoneme>

c) Silent 'h'

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
h hola ˈola <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="ˈola">hola</phoneme>

d) The letter 'ñ'

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
ñ niño nˈiɲo <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="nˈiɲo">niño</phoneme>

e) The letter 'x':

IPA symbolWordIPA-transcriptionPhoneme CodeListen
x examen eksamˈen <phoneme alphabet="ipa" ph="eksamˈen">examen</phoneme>

Key Features of IPA Phonetic Transcription

  1. Universality: The IPA is designed to represent the sounds of all spoken languages, making it a universal tool for linguists.
  2. Precision: It provides a precise and consistent method for describing the exact pronunciation of words, without ambiguity.
  3. Symbol Set: The IPA includes a comprehensive set of symbols, each representing a distinct sound (phoneme). These symbols are derived from the Latin alphabet and additional diacritics.
  4. Representation of Nuances: It can capture subtle differences in pronunciation, including intonation, stress, and articulation.

Purpose of IPA Phonetic Transcription for Spanish

  1. Language Learning: Helps learners of Spanish understand and produce accurate pronunciation by visually representing the sounds they need to make.
  2. Linguistic Research: Assists linguists in studying the phonetic characteristics of Spanish, comparing dialects, and documenting languages.
  3. Dictionary Entries: Used in dictionaries to provide a clear guide to pronunciation, aiding both native speakers and learners.
  4. Speech Therapy: Facilitates speech therapists in diagnosing and treating speech disorders by providing a clear and precise way to describe speech sounds.
  5. Language Teaching: Aids teachers in demonstrating correct pronunciation and distinguishing between similar sounds.

Phonetic Transcription for Spanish

Spanish uses the following IPA symbols to represent its phonemes:

  • Vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/
  • Consonants: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /ɡ/, /f/, /θ/ (in Spain), /s/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /x/, /h/ (in some dialects), /m/, /n/, /ɲ/, /l/, /ʎ/ (in some dialects), /r/, /ɾ/

In summary, IPA phonetic transcription is an essential tool for accurately representing the sounds of the Spanish language, serving purposes in education, research, and practical applications like speech therapy.



International Telegram chat @speechgen

Personal support in Telegram @speechgen_alex


We use cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Learn more: Privacy Policy

Accept Cookies